Diverticulosis happens when pouches form in the wall of the colon camera. If these pouches get inflamed or infected, it is called diverticulitis. Diverticulitis can be very painful.
What causes diverticulitis?
Doctors aren't sure what causes diverticula in the colon (diverticulosis). But they think that a low-fiber diet may play a role. Without fiber to add bulk to the stool, the colon has to work harder than normal to push the stool forward. The pressure from this may cause pouches to form in weak spots along the colon.
Diverticulitis happens when feces get trapped in the pouches (diverticula). This allows bacteria to grow in the pouches. This can lead to inflammation or infection.
What are the symptoms?
Symptoms of diverticulitis may last from a few hours to a week or more.
- Belly pain, usually in the lower left side, that is sometimes worse when you move. This is the most common symptom.
- Fever and chills.
- Bloating and gas.
- Diarrhea or constipation.
- Nausea and sometimes vomiting.
- Not feeling like eating.
How is diverticulitis diagnosed?
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and will examine you. He or she may do tests to see if you have an infection or to make sure that you don't have other problems. Tests may include:
- Blood tests, such as a complete blood count (CBC).
- Other tests, such as an X-ray or a CT scan.
How is it treated?
The treatment you need depends on how bad your symptoms are and whether you have an infection. You may need to have only liquids at first, and then return to solid food when you start feeling better.
If you have an infection, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics. Take them as directed. Do not stop taking them just because you feel better.
For mild cramps and belly pain:
- Use a heating pad, set on low, on your belly.
- Relax. For example, try meditation or slow, deep breathing in a quiet room.
- Take medicine, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol, for example).
You may need surgery only if diverticulitis doesn't get better with other treatment, or if you have problems such as long-lasting (chronic) pain, a bowel obstruction, a fistula, or a pocket of infection (abscess).
How can you prevent diverticulitis?
You may be able to prevent diverticulitis if you drink plenty of water, get regular exercise, and eat a high-fiber diet. A high-fiber diet includes whole grains, fresh fruits, and vegetables.